ISO/IEC 7942-1:1994(EN) Information technology — Computer graphics and image processing — Graphical Kernel System (GKS) — Part 1: Functional description
ISO/IEC 7942-1:1994 was created by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTCl, Information technology, Sub-Committee 24, Computer graphics and image processing.
ISO/IEC 7942-1:1994 specifies a set of functions for computer graphics programming, the Graphical Kernel System (GKS). It provides functions for two dimensional graphical output, the storage and dynamic modification of pictures, and operator input. GKS functions and datatypes are specified independently of programming languages.
GKS establishes a system for device independent graphics programming by separating picture composition and interaction from the realization of the pictures on a specific output device and the input devices used by the operator.
ISO/IEC 7942-1:1994 is applicable to a wide range of applications that produce two dimensional pictures on vector or raster graphical devices in monochrome or colour. Operator interaction is allowed with these pictures.
ISO/IEC 7942-1:1994 is the second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 7942:1985), which has been technically revised. ISO/IEC 7942 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Computer graphics and image processing — Graphical Kernel System (GKS):
Part 1 : Functional description
Part 2: NDC metafile
Part 3: Audit trail
Part 4: Picture part archive
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) provides a set of functions for computer graphics programming that can be used by a range of applications. The main motivations for standardization are to improve portability of programs and to define a basic methodology. Portability is achieved by providing all the capabilities necessary in a device independent way.
The following principles are used in specifying GKS:
a) Design: the three goals are consistency of approach, compatibility with related standards and orthogonal functionality where possible.
b) Functionality: the goals are completeness with the minimal set of functions. Organization of functions should be such as to achieve compact programs. Richness should be provided by utilities and toolkits on top of GKS rather than non-standard extensions to GKS.
c) Clarity: the underlying concepts should be easily understood, especially by the application programmer. To achieve this, GKS is defined using a small set of functions with precise specification of the data structures that define the state of GKS and the effect that functions have on this state.
d) Error handling: all errors caused by incorrect function invocations or internal failures are logged with the application having control over the action taken.
e) Separation of device dependent functionality: in GKS there is a clear separation between the functionality that is device dependent and device independent. GKS has the concept of a workstation which deals with all device dependent functions.
f) Implementation: GKS should be realizable in a wide range of host languages. The support GKS requires from the operating system should not be excessive. GKS should be efficient to implement on commonly available hardware and it should be easy to produce a robust product.
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