ISO/IEC 2022:1994(EN) Information technology — Character code structure and extension techniques

ISO/IEC 2022:1994 was created by the European Association for the Standardization of Information and Communication Systems, ECMA, (as ECMA-35), and it was approved by national bodies of ISO and IEC concurrently with JTC 1’s adoption using a unique “fast-track approach”.
The fourth edition of ISO/IEC 2022 (1994), which is a technical revision of the third version (ISO 2022:1986), replaces and supersedes it (see also the introduction).
The format of 8-bit and 7-bit codes that support character set coding is described by ISO/IEC 2022:1994. Both the 8-bit and 7-bit codes share the same code elements that are employed in the structure. The codes employ a number of methods to increase the functionality of fundamental 8-bit and 7-bit codes. Since 8-bit codes are now more prevalent, this edition of the Standard places more emphasis on them than previous editions did.
Any specific conforming 8-bit code can be easily and directly converted into an equivalent 7-bit code and vice versa by using shared components in the 8-bit and 7-bit code structures.
Note: The structure of the coded character set described in ISO/IEC 10646-1 is different from that of ISO/IEC 2022:1994.
The facilities for extending the amount of control functions and graphic characters that are available in a code are included in the code structure facilities that are described here. As well as providing a coded identification of the structure and of the constituent elements of such specific codes, they also offer mechanisms for creating and formalising the definition of particular codes.
Object identifiers in accordance with ISO 8824 can be used to identify specific codes as well.
According to ISO 2375, certain character sets and control functions meant for use with these 8-bit and 7-bit codes are presumed to be registered in the ISO International Register of Coded Character Sets to be Used with Escape Sequences. The register comprises information that links specific character sets and control functions to both their coded representations and the character sets’ corresponding coded identifications.
The ISO/IEC 2022:1994 standards can be used as a guide to create additional code structure facilities. For instance, ISO/IEC 6429 used this method to develop some parameterized control functions.
The benefits of employing uniform code construction techniques for the 8-bit and 7-bit codes mentioned below are:
— permitting uniform provision for code structure in the design of information processing systems,
— providing standardized methods of calling into use agreed sets of characters,
— allowing the interchange of data between environments that utilise 8-bit and 7-bit codes respectively,
— reducing the risk of conflict between systems required to inter-operate.
When two systems with various levels of code structure facility implementation need to communicate with one another, they can do so by using the code structure facility that they both share.
These codes are intended to be applied to data that is processed sequentially and forward. It may have unfavourable effects or require further specific handling to ensure correct interpretation if these codes are used in data strings that are handled in another fashion or that are included in data structured for fixed-length record processing.

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