ISO 8805:1988(EN) Information processing systems — Computer graphics —
Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions (GKS-3D) functional description
ISO 8805:1988 specifies a set of functions for computer graphics programming, the Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions (GKS-3D). GKS-3D is a common graphics system for applications that produce computer generated three dimensional pictures on graphics output equipment. It helps operator input and interaction by supplying basic functions for graphical input and picture segmentation. It lets storage and dynamic modification of pictures. A fundamental concept in GKS-3D is the workshop, consisting of a number of input devices and a single output equipment. Many workstations can be used simultaneously. The application program is allowed to adapt its behavior at a workstation to make best use of workstation abilities. ISO 8805:1988 includes functions for storage on and retrieval from an external graphics file. Also, the functions are organized in upward compatible levels with increasing capabilities.
ISO 8805:1988 provides application programs with the capability to define and display 3D graphical primitives, specified using 3D coordinates. In addition, the GKS-3D input model shares 3D locator and stroke input.
The output primitives of this International Standard differ from the output primitives of ISO 7942 in the following ways:
a) The polyline and polymarker primitives are explained by an arbitrary sequence of 3D coordinates;
b) The text, fill area and cell array primitives remain planar, but can lie in a plane positioned arbitrarily in 3D space;
c) the fill area set primitive is explained.
Functions are provided in ISO 8805:1988 to generate these primitives.
The functions of ISO 7942 can be used in ISO 8805:1988 However, the outcome functions generate instances of 3D primitives — examples that are constrained to lie in a plane. Furthermore, additional capabilities are provided in ISO 8805:1988 to:
d) Specify views of 3D objects;
e) Obtain information from 3D input devices;
f) Permit workstations to perform hidden line/hidden surface removal
ISO 8805:1988 provides no specific functions for controlling such rendering techniques as light source, shading, texturing, and shadow computations. However, workstations can apply these techniques, locally as the primitives and attributes are realized, shared that the general guidelines, concerning allowable workstation differences are followed.
GKS-3D shares a language independent nucleus of a graphics system. For integration into a programming language, GKS-3D is embedded in a language dependent layer obeying the particular conventions of that particular language.
The Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions (GKS-3D) provides a set of functions for:
a) Definition and display of 2D and 3D graphical data;
b) Storage and manipulation of graphical data;
c) Input of graphically related data.
The main reasons for introducing ISO 8805:1988 for computer graphics is:
d) To allow application programs involving graphics to be easily portable between different installations;
e) To aid the understanding and use of graphics methods by application programmers;
f) To serve manufacturers of graphics equipment as a guideline in providing useful combinations of graphics capabilities in a device.
In order to reach these main objectives, the GKS-3D design was based on the following requirements:
g) GKS-3D should include all the capabilities that are essential for the whole spectrum of graphics, from simple passive output to highly interactive application.
h) The whole range of graphics devices, including vector and raster devices, microfilm recorders, storage tube displays, refresh displays and color displays should be controllable by GKS-3D in a uniform way.
i) GKS-3D should provide all the capabilities required by a majority of applications.
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