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    ISO 8373

     

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    [1:56 pm, 11/07/2022] E-Certifications: ISO 8180:2020(EN) Ductile iron pipelines — Polyethylene sleeving for site application

    ISO 8180:2020 was created by Technical Committee ISO/TC 5, Ferrous metal pipes and metallic fittings, Subcommittee SC 2, Cast iron pipes, fittings and their joints.
    ISO 8180:2020 is the third edition, it cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8180:2006), which has been technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
    — Recommended installation methods have been added;
    — The references and presentation have been reviewed and improved.
    ISO 8180:2020 specifies the characteristics of polyethylene film, commonly called polyethylene sleeving, used as additional protection against corrosion for ductile iron pipelines, particularly when laid in aggressive soil conditions.
    ISO 8180:2020, the efficiency of which has been proved by experience, takes the form of a sheet or tube fitted around the pipes and fittings, on-site, immediately before pipe-laying.

    For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply
    polyethylene sleeving
    sleeving of piping with polyethylene film in tube or sheet form
    Polyethylene film
    Film extruded from virgin polyethylene raw material
    Regenerated product
    Polyethylene film made by using recycled material, which could be mixed by different material, from different sources
    If you need more support with ISO 8180:2020, please contact us at +91-8595603096 or support@pacificcert.com
    [1:56 pm, 11/07/2022] E-Certifications: ISO 8373:2021(EN) Robotics — Vocabulary
    ISO 8373:2021 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 299, Robotics.
    ISO 8373:2021 is the third edition, it cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8373:2012), which has been technically revised
    ISO 8373:2021 defines terms used in relation to robotics.
    ISO 8373:2021 provides a vocabulary of terms and related definitions for use in ISO documents relating to robotics. It supports the development of new documents and the harmonization of existing International Standards.
    3 Terms and definitions — General-Clause wise
    3.1
    Robot
    Programmed actuated mechanism with a degree of autonomy to perform locomotion, manipulation or positioning
    3.2
    Autonomy
    Ability to perform intended tasks based on current state and sensing, without human intervention
    Note 1 to entry: For a particular application, degree of autonomy can be evaluated according to the quality of decision-making and independence from human. For example, metrics for degree of autonomy exists for medical electrical equipment in IEC/TR 60601-4-1.
    3.3
    Robotic technology
    Practical application knowledge commonly used in the design of robots or their control systems, especially to raise their degree of autonomy
    3.4
    Control system
    Robot controller
    Set of hardware and software components implementing logic and power control, and other functions which allow monitoring and controlling of the behavior of a robot (3.1) and its interaction and communication with other objects and humans in the environment
    3.5
    Robotic device
    Mechanism developed with robotic technology, but not fulfilling all characteristics of a robot
    3.6
    Industrial robot
    automatically controlled, reprogrammable multipurpose manipulator (4.14), programmable in three or more axes, which can be either fixed in place or fixed to a mobile platform (4.16) for use in automation applications in an industrial environment
    3.7
    Service robot
    Robot (3.1) in personal use or professional use that performs useful tasks for humans or equipment
    3.8
    Medical robot
    Robot (3.1) intended to be used as medical electrical equipment or medical electrical systems
    3.9
    Industrial robot system
    Robot system
    Machine comprising an industrial robot (3.6); end-effector(s); any end-effector sensors and equipment (e.g. vision systems, adhesive dispensing, weld controller) needed to support the intended task; and a task program
    3.10
    Robotics
    Science and practice of designing, manufacturing, and applying robots
    3.11
    Operator
    Person designated to start, monitor and stop the intended operation
    3.12
    Task programmer
    Person designated to prepare the task program
    3.13
    Collaboration
    Operation by purposely designed robots (3.1) and person working within the same space
    3.14
    Robot cooperation
    Information and action exchanges between multiple robots (3.1) to ensure that their motions work effectively together to accomplish the task
    3.15
    Human–robot interaction
    HRI
    Information and action exchanges between human and robot (3.1) to perform a task by means of a user interface
    3.16
    Validation
    Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use have been fulfilled
    3.17
    Verification
    Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the requirements have been fulfilled
    4 Terms related to mechanical structure
    4.1
    Actuator
    Robot actuator
    Power mechanism that converts electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or any energy to effect motion of the robot
    4.2
    Robotic arm
    Arm
    Primary axes
    Interconnected set of links (4.7) and powered joints of the manipulator (4.14), between the base (4.9) and the wrist (4.3)
    4.3
    Robotic wrist
    Wrist
    Secondary axes
    Interconnected set of links (4.7) and powered joints (4.8) of the manipulator (4.14) between the arm (4.2) and end-effector (4.12) which supports, positions and orients the end-effector
    4.4
    Robotic leg
    leg
    mechanism of interconnected set of links (4.7) and joints (4.8) which is actuated to support and propel the mobile robot (4.15) by making reciprocating motion and intermittent contact with the travel surface (8.7)
    4.5
    Configuration
    <kinematics> set of all joint (4.8) values that completely determines the shape of the robot (3.1) at any time
    4.6
    Configuration
    <modularity> arrangement of the modules (9.3) to achieve the desired functionality of a robot (3.1)
    4.7
    Link
    Rigid body connected to one or more rigid bodies by joints (4.8)
    4.8
    Joint
    Mechanical part that connects two rigid bodies and enables constrained relative motion between them
    Note 1 to entry: A joint is either active/powered or passive/unpowered.
    4.8.1
    Prismatic joint
    Sliding joint
    Assembly between two links (4.7) which enables one to have a linear motion relative to the other
    4.8.2
    Rotary joint
    Revolute joint
    Assembly connecting two links (4.7) which enables one to rotate relative to the other about a fixed axis (5.3)
    4.9
    Base
    Structure to which the first link (4.7) of the manipulator (4.14) is attached
    4.10
    Base mounting surface
    Connection surface of the first link (4.7) of the manipulator (4.14) that is connected to the base (4.9)
    4.11
    Mechanical interface
    Mounting surface at the end of the manipulator (4.14) to which the end-effector (4.12) is attached
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9409-1 and ISO 9409-2.
    4.12
    End-effector
    Device specifically designed for attachment to the mechanical interface (4.11) to enable the robot (3.1) to perform its task
    EXAMPLE:Gripper (4.13), welding gun, spray gun.
    4.13
    Gripper
    End-effector (4.12) designed for seizing and holding
    4.14
    Manipulator
    Mechanism consisting of an arrangement of segments, jointed or sliding relative to one another
    4.14.1
    Rectangular robot
    Cartesian robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has three prismatic joints (4.8.1), whose axes (5.3) form a Cartesian coordinate system
    4.14.2
    Cylindrical robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has at least one rotary joint (4.8.2) and at least one prismatic joint (4.8.1), whose axes (5.3) form a cylindrical coordinate system
    4.14.3
    Polar robot
    Spherical robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has two rotary joints (4.8.2) and one prismatic joint (4.8.1), whose axes (5.3) form a polar coordinate system
    4.14.4
    pendular robot
    Manipulator (4.14) whose mechanical structure includes a universal joint pivoting subassembly
    4.14.5
    Articulated robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has three or more rotary joints (4.8.2)
    4.14.6
    SCARA robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has two parallel rotary joints (4.8.2) to provide compliance (6.12) in a selected plane
    4.14.7
    Parallel robot
    Parallel link robot
    Manipulator (4.14) whose arms (4.2) have links (4.7) which form a closed loop structure
    4.15
    Mobile robot
    Robot (3.1) able to travel under its own control
    4.15.1
    Wheeled robot
    Mobile robot (4.15) that travels using wheels
    4.15.2
    Legged robot
    Mobile robot (4.15) that travels using one or more legs (4.4)
    4.15.3
    Biped robot
    Legged robot (4.15.2) that travels using two legs (4.4)
    4.15.4
    Crawler robot
    Tracked robot
    Mobile robot (4.15) that travels on tracks
    4.15.5
    Humanoid robot
    Robot (3.1) with body, head and limbs, looking and moving like a human
    4.16
    Mobile platform
    Assembly of the components which enables locomotion
    4.17
    Wearable robot
    Robot (3.1) that is attached to and carried by the human during use and provides an assistive force for supplementation or augmentation of personal capabilities
    5 Terms related to geometry and kinematics
    5.1
    Forward kinematics
    Mathematical determination of the relationship between the coordinate systems of two parts of a mechanical linkage, based on the joint values of this linkage
    5.2
    Inverse kinematics
    Mathematical determination of the joint values of a mechanical linkage, based on the relationship of the coordinate systems of two parts of this linkage
    5.3
    Axis
    Direction used to specify the robot (3.1) motion in a linear or rotary mode
    5.4
    Degree of freedom
    DOF
    One of the variables (maximum number of six) required to define the motion of a body in space
    Note 1 to entry: Because of possible confusion with axes (5.3), it is advisable not to use the term degree of freedom to describe the motion of the robot.
    5.5
    Pose
    Combination of position and orientation in space
    5.5.1
    Command pose
    Programmed pose
    Pose (5.5) specified by the task program (6.1)
    5.5.2
    Attained pose
    Pose (5.5) achieved by the robot (3.1) in response to the command pose (5.5.1)
    5.5.3
    Alignment pose
    Specified pose (5.5) used to establish a geometrical reference for the robot (3.1)
    5.5.4
    Path
    Route that connects an ordered set of poses (5.5)
    5.6
    Trajectory
    Path (5.5.4) in time
    5.7
    World coordinate system
    Stationary coordinate system referenced to earth, which is independent of the robot (3.1) motion
    5.8
    Base coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to the base mounting surface (4.10)
    5.9
    Mechanical interface coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to the mechanical interface (4.11)
    5.10
    Joint coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to the joint axes (5.3), the joint coordinates of which are defined relative to the preceding joint coordinates or to some other coordinate system
    5.11
    Tool coordinate system
    TCS
    Coordinate system referenced to the tool or to the end-effector (4.12) attached to the mechanical interface (4.11)
    5.12
    Mobile platform coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to one of the components of a mobile platform (4.16)
    Note 1 to entry: A typical mobile platform coordinate system for the mobile robot (4.11) takes positive X as the forward direction and positive Z as the upward direction, and positive Y is decided by right-hand rule.
    5.13
    Maximum space
    Space which can be swept by the moving parts of the robot (3.1), plus the space which can be swept by the end-effector (4.12) and the workpiece
    5.14
    Restricted space
    Portion of the maximum space (5.13) restricted by limiting devices (6.21) that establish limits which will not be exceeded
    Note 1 to entry: For mobile platforms (4.16), this volume can be limited by special markers on floors and walls, or by software limits defined in the internal map.
    5.15
    Operational space
    Operating space
    Portion of the restricted space (5.14) that is used while performing all motions commanded by the task program (6.1)
    5.16
    Working space
    Space which can be swept by the wrist reference point (5.19)
    5.17
    Safeguarded space
    Space where safeguards are active
    5.18
    tool center point
    TCP
    Point defined for a given application with regard to the mechanical interface coordinate system (5.9)
    5.19
    Wrist reference point
    Wrist centre point
    Wrist origin
    Intersection point of the two innermost secondary axes (4.3) [i.e. those closest to the primary axes (4.2)] or, if this does not exist, a specified point on the innermost secondary axis
    5.20
    Mobile platform origin
    Mobile platform reference point
    Origin point of the mobile platform coordinate system (5.12)
    5.21
    Singularity
    Occurrence whenever the rank of the Jacobian matrix becomes less than full rank
    6 Terms related to programming and control
    6.1
    Task program
    Set of instructions for motion and auxiliary functions that define the specific intended task of the robot (3.1) or robot system (3.9)
    Note 1 to entry: This type of program is generated by the task programmer (3.12).
    Note 2 to entry: An application is a general area of work; a task is specific within the application.
    6.2
    Control program
    Inherent set of control instructions which defines the capabilities, actions and responses of a robot (3.1) or robot system (3.9)
    6.3
    Task programming
    Programming
    Act of providing the task program (6.1)
    6.4
    Teach programming
    programming of the task performed by a) manually moving the robot to desired positions, i.e. by lead-through; b) using a teach pendant (6.16) to move the robot (3.1) through the desired positions; c) using a teach pendant to program without causing motion; or d) using algorithm(s) with sensor data
    6.5
    Off-line programming
    Programming method where the task program (6.1) is defined on devices separate from the robot (3.1) for later entry into the robot controller (3.4)
    6.6
    Pose-to-pose control
    PTP control
    control procedure whereby the task programmer (3.12) can only impose that the robot (3.1) pass by the command poses (5.5.1) without fixing the path (5.5.4) to be followed between the poses (5.5)
    6.7
    Continuous path control
    CP control
    Control procedure whereby the programmer can impose on the robot (3.1) the path (5.5.4) to be followed between command poses (5.5.1)
    6.8
    Trajectory control
    Continuous path control (6.7) with a programmed velocity profile
    6.9
    Leader-follower control
    Control method where the motion of a primary device (leader) is reproduced on secondary devices (followers)
    6.10
    Sensory control
    Control scheme whereby the robot (3.1) motion or force is adjusted in accordance with outputs of exteroceptive sensors (8.11)
    6.11
    Trajectory planning
    Process by which the robot (3.1)control program (6.2) determines how to move the joints (4.8) of the mechanical structure between the command poses (5.5.1), according to the type of control procedure chosen
    6.12
    Compliance
    Flexible behaviour of a robot (3.1) or any associated tool in response to external forces exerted on it
    Note 1 to entry: When the behaviour is independent of sensory feedback, it is passive compliance; if not, it is active compliance.
    6.13
    Operating mode
    Operational mode
    Characterization of the way and the extent to which the operator (3.11) intervenes in the control equipment
    Note 1 to entry: In the context of this document, mode refers to the control state of the robot (3.1), e.g. automatic, manual, other.
    6.13.1
    Manual mode
    Control state that allows for direct control by a human
    Note 1 to entry: Sometimes referred to as teach mode where program points and robot attributes are set.
    6.13.2
    Automatic mode
    Automatic operation
    Control state in which the robot (3.1)control system (3.4) operates in accordance with the task program (6.1)
    6.13.3
    Semi-autonomous mode
    Operating mode (6.13) in which motions are determined by combination of the autonomous task program (6.1) and manual user inputs given at the same time
    Note 1 to entry: In this operating mode, the manual user input can override the autonomous task program (e.g. for steering) or the autonomous task program can override manual user input (e.g. for collision avoidance).
    6.13.4
    Autonomous mode
    Operating mode (6.13) in which the robot (3.1) function accomplishes its assigned mission without direct human intervention
    EXAMPLE:A service robot (3.7) waiting for an interaction (a command).
    6.14
    Stop-point
    Command pose (5.5.1) (taught or programmed) attained by the axes (5.3) of the robot (3.1) with a velocity command equal to zero and no deviation in positioning
    6.15
    Fly-by point
    Via point
    command pose (5.5.1) (taught or programmed) attained by the axes (5.3) of the robot (3.1) with some deviation, the amount of which depends on the joining profile of the axis velocity to this pose (5.5) and a specified criterion of passage (velocity, deviation in pose)
    6.16
    Pendant
    Teach pendant
    Hand-held unit linked to the control system (3.4) with which a robot (3.1) can be programmed or moved
    6.17
    teleoperation
    Real-time control of motion of robot (3.1) from a remote site by a human
    EXAMPLE:Robotic operations of bomb disposal, space station assembly, underwater inspection and surgery.
    6.18
    User interface
    Means for information and action exchanges between human and robot (3.1) during human–robot interaction (3.15)
    EXAMPLE:Microphone, speaker, graphic user interface, joysticks, haptic devices.
    6.19
    Robot language
    Programming language used for describing the task program (6.1)
    6.20
    Simultaneous motion
    Motion of two or more robots (3.1) at the same time under the control of a single control station and which can be coordinated or synchronized with common mathematical correlation
    Note 1 to entry: An example of a single control station is a teach pendant (6.16).
    Note 2 to entry: Coordination can be done as leader-follower.
    6.21
    Limiting device
    Means that reduces the range of motion of a robot (3.1) to a subset of the maximum space (5.13) by stopping, or causing to stop, all robot motion
    6.22
    Program verification
    Execution of a task program (6.1) for the purpose of confirming the robot path (5.5.4) and process performance
    Note 1 to entry: Program verification can include the total path (5.5.4) traced by the tool centre point (5.18) during the execution of a task program or a segment of the path (5.5.4). The instructions can be executed in a single instruction or continuous instruction sequence. Program verification is used in new applications and in fine-tuning or editing of existing ones.
    6.23
    Safeguarding
    Protective measure using safeguards to protect persons from the hazards which cannot reasonably be eliminated or risks which cannot be sufficiently reduced by inherently safe design measures
    6.24
    Protective stop
    Type of interruption of operation that allows a cessation of motion for safeguarding (6.23) purposes and which retains the program logic to facilitate a restart
    6.25
    Safety-rated
    Characterized by having a prescribed safety function with a specified safety-related performance
    EXAMPLE:Safety-rated reduced speed; safety-rated monitored speed; safety-rated output.
    6.26
    Single point of control
    Ability to operate the robot (3.1) such that initiation of robot motion is only possible from one source of control and cannot be overridden from another initiation source
    6.27
    Reduced speed
    Safety function that limits the speed to be no greater than 250 mm/s
    Note 1 to entry: This safety function can also apply to the robot system (3.9), robot application, robot cell and other machinery.
    7 Terms related to performance
    7.1
    Normal operating conditions
    Range of environmental conditions and other parameters within which the robot (3.1) is expected to perform as specified by the manufacturer
    Note 1 to entry: Environmental conditions include temperature and humidity.
    Note 2 to entry: Other parameters include electrical supply instability and electromagnetic fields.
    7.2
    Load
    Force, torque or both at the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) which can be exerted along the various directions of motion under specified conditions of velocity and acceleration
    Note 1 to entry: The load is a function of mass, moment of inertia, and static and dynamic forces supported by the robot (3.1).
    7.2.1
    Rated load
    Maximum load (7.2) that can be applied to the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) in normal operating conditions (7.1) without degradation of any performance specification
    Note 1 to entry: The rated load includes the inertial effects of the end-effector (4.12), accessories and workpiece, where applicable.
    7.2.2
    Limiting load
    Maximum load (7.2) stated by the manufacturer that can be applied to the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) without any damage or failure to the robot (3.1) mechanism under restricted operating conditions
    7.2.3
    Additional load
    Additional mass
    Load (7.2) that can be carried by the robot (3.1), in addition to the rated load (7.2.1), yet is not applied at the mechanical interface (4.11) but somewhere else on the manipulator (4.14), generally on the arm (4.2)
    7.2.4
    Maximum force
    Maximum thrust
    Force (thrust), excluding any inertial effect, that can be continuously applied to the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) without causing any permanent damage to the robot (3.1) mechanism
    7.3
    Individual joint velocity
    Individual axis velocity
    Velocity of a specified point resulting from the movement of one individual joint (4.8)
    7.4
    Path velocity
    Change of position per unit time along the path (5.5.4)
    7.5
    Pose accuracy
    Unidirectional pose accuracy
    Difference between a command pose (5.5.1) and the mean of the attained poses (5.5.2) when visiting the command pose from the same direction
    7.6
    Pose repeatability
    Unidirectional pose repeatability
    Closeness of agreement among the attained poses (5.5.2) for the same command pose (5.5.1) repeated from the same direction
    7.7
    Multidirectional pose accuracy variation
    Maximum distance between the mean attained poses (5.5.2) achieved when visiting the same command pose (5.5.1) multiple times from three perpendicular directions
    7.8
    Distance accuracy
    Difference between a command distance and the mean of the attained distances
    7.9
    Resolution
    Smallest increment of movement that can be attained by each axis (5.3) or joint (4.8) of the robot (3.1)
    8 Terms related to sensing and navigation
    8.1
    Environment map
    Environment model
    Map or model that describes the environment with its distinguishable features
    EXAMPLE:Grid map, geometrical map, topological map, semantic map.
    8.2
    Localization
    Recognizing pose (5.5) of mobile robot (4.15), or identifying it on the environment map (8.1)
    8.3
    Landmark
    Artificial or natural object identifiable on the environment map (8.1) used for localization (8.2) of the mobile robot (4.15)
    8.4
    Obstacle
    Static or moving object or feature (on ground, wall or ceiling) that obstructs the intended movement
    Note 1 to entry: Ground obstacles include steps, holes and uneven terrain.
    8.5
    Mapping
    Map building
    Map generation
    Constructing the environment map (8.1) to describe the environment with its geometrical and detectable features, landmarks (8.3) and obstacles (8.4)
    8.6
    Navigation
    Process which includes path planning, localization (8.2), mapping (8.5) and providing the direction of travel
    Note 1 to entry: Navigation (8.6) can include path (5.5.4) planning for pose-to-pose travel and complete area coverage.
    8.7
    Travel surface
    Terrain on which the mobile robot (4.15) travels
    8.8
    Dead reckoning
    Method of obtaining the pose (5.5) of a mobile robot (4.15) using only internal measurements from a known initial pose
    8.9
    Task planning
    Process of solving the task to be carried out by generating a task procedure which includes subtasks and motions
    Note 1 to entry: Task planning can include autonomous and user-generated task planning.
    8.10
    Proprioceptive sensor
    Internal state sensor
    Robot sensor intended to measure the internal state(s) of a robot (3.1)
    EXAMPLE:Encoder; potentiometer; tachometer generator; inertial sensor such as accelerometer and gyroscope.
    8.11
    exteroceptive sensor
    External state sensor
    Robot sensor intended to measure the states of a robot’s environment or interaction of the robot (3.1) with its environment
    EXAMPLE:GPS; vision sensor; distance sensor; force sensor; tactile sensor; acoustic sensor.
    9 Terms related to module and modularity
    9.1
    Component
    Part of something that is discrete and identifiable with respect to combining with other parts to produce something larger
    Note 1 to entry: Component can be either software or hardware. A component that is mainly software or hardware can be referred to as software or a hardware component, respectively.
    Note 2 to entry: Component does not need to have any special properties regarding modularity (9.2).
    Note 3 to entry: A module (9.3) is a component, whereas a component does not need to be a module.
    9.2
    Modularity
    Set of characteristics which allow systems to be separated into discrete modules (9.3) and recombined
    9.3
    Module
    Component (9.1) or assembly of components with defined interfaces accompanied with property profiles to facilitate system design, integration, interoperability and reuse
    Note 1 to entry: A module may have both hardware and software aspects. It may consist of other components (hardware and software) or other modules (hardware and software).
    Note 2 to entry: This neither requires nor prevents the use of open source software to implement parts or all of the open module’s functionalities.
    If you need more support with ISO 8373:2021, please contact us at +91-8595603096 or support@pacificcert.com

    [1:56 pm, 11/07/2022] E-Certifications: ISO 8180:2020(EN) Ductile iron pipelines — Polyethylene sleeving for site application

    ISO 8180:2020 was created by Technical Committee ISO/TC 5, Ferrous metal pipes and metallic fittings, Subcommittee SC 2, Cast iron pipes, fittings and their joints.
    ISO 8180:2020 is the third edition, it cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8180:2006), which has been technically revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
    — Recommended installation methods have been added;
    — The references and presentation have been reviewed and improved.
    ISO 8180:2020 specifies the characteristics of polyethylene film, commonly called polyethylene sleeving, used as additional protection against corrosion for ductile iron pipelines, particularly when laid in aggressive soil conditions.
    ISO 8180:2020, the efficiency of which has been proved by experience, takes the form of a sheet or tube fitted around the pipes and fittings, on-site, immediately before pipe-laying.

    For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply
    polyethylene sleeving
    sleeving of piping with polyethylene film in tube or sheet form
    Polyethylene film
    Film extruded from virgin polyethylene raw material
    Regenerated product
    Polyethylene film made by using recycled material, which could be mixed by different material, from different sources
    If you need more support with ISO 8180:2020, please contact us at +91-8595603096 or support@pacificcert.com
    [1:56 pm, 11/07/2022] E-Certifications: ISO 8373:2021(EN) Robotics — Vocabulary
    ISO 8373:2021 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 299, Robotics.
    ISO 8373:2021 is the third edition, it cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 8373:2012), which has been technically revised
    ISO 8373:2021 defines terms used in relation to robotics.
    ISO 8373:2021 provides a vocabulary of terms and related definitions for use in ISO documents relating to robotics. It supports the development of new documents and the harmonization of existing International Standards.
    3 Terms and definitions — General-Clause wise
    3.1
    Robot
    Programmed actuated mechanism with a degree of autonomy to perform locomotion, manipulation or positioning
    3.2
    Autonomy
    Ability to perform intended tasks based on current state and sensing, without human intervention
    Note 1 to entry: For a particular application, degree of autonomy can be evaluated according to the quality of decision-making and independence from human. For example, metrics for degree of autonomy exists for medical electrical equipment in IEC/TR 60601-4-1.
    3.3
    Robotic technology
    Practical application knowledge commonly used in the design of robots or their control systems, especially to raise their degree of autonomy
    3.4
    Control system
    Robot controller
    Set of hardware and software components implementing logic and power control, and other functions which allow monitoring and controlling of the behavior of a robot (3.1) and its interaction and communication with other objects and humans in the environment
    3.5
    Robotic device
    Mechanism developed with robotic technology, but not fulfilling all characteristics of a robot
    3.6
    Industrial robot
    automatically controlled, reprogrammable multipurpose manipulator (4.14), programmable in three or more axes, which can be either fixed in place or fixed to a mobile platform (4.16) for use in automation applications in an industrial environment
    3.7
    Service robot
    Robot (3.1) in personal use or professional use that performs useful tasks for humans or equipment
    3.8
    Medical robot
    Robot (3.1) intended to be used as medical electrical equipment or medical electrical systems
    3.9
    Industrial robot system
    Robot system
    Machine comprising an industrial robot (3.6); end-effector(s); any end-effector sensors and equipment (e.g. vision systems, adhesive dispensing, weld controller) needed to support the intended task; and a task program
    3.10
    Robotics
    Science and practice of designing, manufacturing, and applying robots
    3.11
    Operator
    Person designated to start, monitor and stop the intended operation
    3.12
    Task programmer
    Person designated to prepare the task program
    3.13
    Collaboration
    Operation by purposely designed robots (3.1) and person working within the same space
    3.14
    Robot cooperation
    Information and action exchanges between multiple robots (3.1) to ensure that their motions work effectively together to accomplish the task
    3.15
    Human–robot interaction
    HRI
    Information and action exchanges between human and robot (3.1) to perform a task by means of a user interface
    3.16
    Validation
    Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use have been fulfilled
    3.17
    Verification
    Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that the requirements have been fulfilled
    4 Terms related to mechanical structure
    4.1
    Actuator
    Robot actuator
    Power mechanism that converts electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or any energy to effect motion of the robot
    4.2
    Robotic arm
    Arm
    Primary axes
    Interconnected set of links (4.7) and powered joints of the manipulator (4.14), between the base (4.9) and the wrist (4.3)
    4.3
    Robotic wrist
    Wrist
    Secondary axes
    Interconnected set of links (4.7) and powered joints (4.8) of the manipulator (4.14) between the arm (4.2) and end-effector (4.12) which supports, positions and orients the end-effector
    4.4
    Robotic leg
    leg
    mechanism of interconnected set of links (4.7) and joints (4.8) which is actuated to support and propel the mobile robot (4.15) by making reciprocating motion and intermittent contact with the travel surface (8.7)
    4.5
    Configuration
    <kinematics> set of all joint (4.8) values that completely determines the shape of the robot (3.1) at any time
    4.6
    Configuration
    <modularity> arrangement of the modules (9.3) to achieve the desired functionality of a robot (3.1)
    4.7
    Link
    Rigid body connected to one or more rigid bodies by joints (4.8)
    4.8
    Joint
    Mechanical part that connects two rigid bodies and enables constrained relative motion between them
    Note 1 to entry: A joint is either active/powered or passive/unpowered.
    4.8.1
    Prismatic joint
    Sliding joint
    Assembly between two links (4.7) which enables one to have a linear motion relative to the other
    4.8.2
    Rotary joint
    Revolute joint
    Assembly connecting two links (4.7) which enables one to rotate relative to the other about a fixed axis (5.3)
    4.9
    Base
    Structure to which the first link (4.7) of the manipulator (4.14) is attached
    4.10
    Base mounting surface
    Connection surface of the first link (4.7) of the manipulator (4.14) that is connected to the base (4.9)
    4.11
    Mechanical interface
    Mounting surface at the end of the manipulator (4.14) to which the end-effector (4.12) is attached
    Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9409-1 and ISO 9409-2.
    4.12
    End-effector
    Device specifically designed for attachment to the mechanical interface (4.11) to enable the robot (3.1) to perform its task
    EXAMPLE:Gripper (4.13), welding gun, spray gun.
    4.13
    Gripper
    End-effector (4.12) designed for seizing and holding
    4.14
    Manipulator
    Mechanism consisting of an arrangement of segments, jointed or sliding relative to one another
    4.14.1
    Rectangular robot
    Cartesian robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has three prismatic joints (4.8.1), whose axes (5.3) form a Cartesian coordinate system
    4.14.2
    Cylindrical robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has at least one rotary joint (4.8.2) and at least one prismatic joint (4.8.1), whose axes (5.3) form a cylindrical coordinate system
    4.14.3
    Polar robot
    Spherical robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has two rotary joints (4.8.2) and one prismatic joint (4.8.1), whose axes (5.3) form a polar coordinate system
    4.14.4
    pendular robot
    Manipulator (4.14) whose mechanical structure includes a universal joint pivoting subassembly
    4.14.5
    Articulated robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has three or more rotary joints (4.8.2)
    4.14.6
    SCARA robot
    Manipulator (4.14) which has two parallel rotary joints (4.8.2) to provide compliance (6.12) in a selected plane
    4.14.7
    Parallel robot
    Parallel link robot
    Manipulator (4.14) whose arms (4.2) have links (4.7) which form a closed loop structure
    4.15
    Mobile robot
    Robot (3.1) able to travel under its own control
    4.15.1
    Wheeled robot
    Mobile robot (4.15) that travels using wheels
    4.15.2
    Legged robot
    Mobile robot (4.15) that travels using one or more legs (4.4)
    4.15.3
    Biped robot
    Legged robot (4.15.2) that travels using two legs (4.4)
    4.15.4
    Crawler robot
    Tracked robot
    Mobile robot (4.15) that travels on tracks
    4.15.5
    Humanoid robot
    Robot (3.1) with body, head and limbs, looking and moving like a human
    4.16
    Mobile platform
    Assembly of the components which enables locomotion
    4.17
    Wearable robot
    Robot (3.1) that is attached to and carried by the human during use and provides an assistive force for supplementation or augmentation of personal capabilities
    5 Terms related to geometry and kinematics
    5.1
    Forward kinematics
    Mathematical determination of the relationship between the coordinate systems of two parts of a mechanical linkage, based on the joint values of this linkage
    5.2
    Inverse kinematics
    Mathematical determination of the joint values of a mechanical linkage, based on the relationship of the coordinate systems of two parts of this linkage
    5.3
    Axis
    Direction used to specify the robot (3.1) motion in a linear or rotary mode
    5.4
    Degree of freedom
    DOF
    One of the variables (maximum number of six) required to define the motion of a body in space
    Note 1 to entry: Because of possible confusion with axes (5.3), it is advisable not to use the term degree of freedom to describe the motion of the robot.
    5.5
    Pose
    Combination of position and orientation in space
    5.5.1
    Command pose
    Programmed pose
    Pose (5.5) specified by the task program (6.1)
    5.5.2
    Attained pose
    Pose (5.5) achieved by the robot (3.1) in response to the command pose (5.5.1)
    5.5.3
    Alignment pose
    Specified pose (5.5) used to establish a geometrical reference for the robot (3.1)
    5.5.4
    Path
    Route that connects an ordered set of poses (5.5)
    5.6
    Trajectory
    Path (5.5.4) in time
    5.7
    World coordinate system
    Stationary coordinate system referenced to earth, which is independent of the robot (3.1) motion
    5.8
    Base coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to the base mounting surface (4.10)
    5.9
    Mechanical interface coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to the mechanical interface (4.11)
    5.10
    Joint coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to the joint axes (5.3), the joint coordinates of which are defined relative to the preceding joint coordinates or to some other coordinate system
    5.11
    Tool coordinate system
    TCS
    Coordinate system referenced to the tool or to the end-effector (4.12) attached to the mechanical interface (4.11)
    5.12
    Mobile platform coordinate system
    Coordinate system referenced to one of the components of a mobile platform (4.16)
    Note 1 to entry: A typical mobile platform coordinate system for the mobile robot (4.11) takes positive X as the forward direction and positive Z as the upward direction, and positive Y is decided by right-hand rule.
    5.13
    Maximum space
    Space which can be swept by the moving parts of the robot (3.1), plus the space which can be swept by the end-effector (4.12) and the workpiece
    5.14
    Restricted space
    Portion of the maximum space (5.13) restricted by limiting devices (6.21) that establish limits which will not be exceeded
    Note 1 to entry: For mobile platforms (4.16), this volume can be limited by special markers on floors and walls, or by software limits defined in the internal map.
    5.15
    Operational space
    Operating space
    Portion of the restricted space (5.14) that is used while performing all motions commanded by the task program (6.1)
    5.16
    Working space
    Space which can be swept by the wrist reference point (5.19)
    5.17
    Safeguarded space
    Space where safeguards are active
    5.18
    tool center point
    TCP
    Point defined for a given application with regard to the mechanical interface coordinate system (5.9)
    5.19
    Wrist reference point
    Wrist centre point
    Wrist origin
    Intersection point of the two innermost secondary axes (4.3) [i.e. those closest to the primary axes (4.2)] or, if this does not exist, a specified point on the innermost secondary axis
    5.20
    Mobile platform origin
    Mobile platform reference point
    Origin point of the mobile platform coordinate system (5.12)
    5.21
    Singularity
    Occurrence whenever the rank of the Jacobian matrix becomes less than full rank
    6 Terms related to programming and control
    6.1
    Task program
    Set of instructions for motion and auxiliary functions that define the specific intended task of the robot (3.1) or robot system (3.9)
    Note 1 to entry: This type of program is generated by the task programmer (3.12).
    Note 2 to entry: An application is a general area of work; a task is specific within the application.
    6.2
    Control program
    Inherent set of control instructions which defines the capabilities, actions and responses of a robot (3.1) or robot system (3.9)
    6.3
    Task programming
    Programming
    Act of providing the task program (6.1)
    6.4
    Teach programming
    programming of the task performed by a) manually moving the robot to desired positions, i.e. by lead-through; b) using a teach pendant (6.16) to move the robot (3.1) through the desired positions; c) using a teach pendant to program without causing motion; or d) using algorithm(s) with sensor data
    6.5
    Off-line programming
    Programming method where the task program (6.1) is defined on devices separate from the robot (3.1) for later entry into the robot controller (3.4)
    6.6
    Pose-to-pose control
    PTP control
    control procedure whereby the task programmer (3.12) can only impose that the robot (3.1) pass by the command poses (5.5.1) without fixing the path (5.5.4) to be followed between the poses (5.5)
    6.7
    Continuous path control
    CP control
    Control procedure whereby the programmer can impose on the robot (3.1) the path (5.5.4) to be followed between command poses (5.5.1)
    6.8
    Trajectory control
    Continuous path control (6.7) with a programmed velocity profile
    6.9
    Leader-follower control
    Control method where the motion of a primary device (leader) is reproduced on secondary devices (followers)
    6.10
    Sensory control
    Control scheme whereby the robot (3.1) motion or force is adjusted in accordance with outputs of exteroceptive sensors (8.11)
    6.11
    Trajectory planning
    Process by which the robot (3.1)control program (6.2) determines how to move the joints (4.8) of the mechanical structure between the command poses (5.5.1), according to the type of control procedure chosen
    6.12
    Compliance
    Flexible behaviour of a robot (3.1) or any associated tool in response to external forces exerted on it
    Note 1 to entry: When the behaviour is independent of sensory feedback, it is passive compliance; if not, it is active compliance.
    6.13
    Operating mode
    Operational mode
    Characterization of the way and the extent to which the operator (3.11) intervenes in the control equipment
    Note 1 to entry: In the context of this document, mode refers to the control state of the robot (3.1), e.g. automatic, manual, other.
    6.13.1
    Manual mode
    Control state that allows for direct control by a human
    Note 1 to entry: Sometimes referred to as teach mode where program points and robot attributes are set.
    6.13.2
    Automatic mode
    Automatic operation
    Control state in which the robot (3.1)control system (3.4) operates in accordance with the task program (6.1)
    6.13.3
    Semi-autonomous mode
    Operating mode (6.13) in which motions are determined by combination of the autonomous task program (6.1) and manual user inputs given at the same time
    Note 1 to entry: In this operating mode, the manual user input can override the autonomous task program (e.g. for steering) or the autonomous task program can override manual user input (e.g. for collision avoidance).
    6.13.4
    Autonomous mode
    Operating mode (6.13) in which the robot (3.1) function accomplishes its assigned mission without direct human intervention
    EXAMPLE:A service robot (3.7) waiting for an interaction (a command).
    6.14
    Stop-point
    Command pose (5.5.1) (taught or programmed) attained by the axes (5.3) of the robot (3.1) with a velocity command equal to zero and no deviation in positioning
    6.15
    Fly-by point
    Via point
    command pose (5.5.1) (taught or programmed) attained by the axes (5.3) of the robot (3.1) with some deviation, the amount of which depends on the joining profile of the axis velocity to this pose (5.5) and a specified criterion of passage (velocity, deviation in pose)
    6.16
    Pendant
    Teach pendant
    Hand-held unit linked to the control system (3.4) with which a robot (3.1) can be programmed or moved
    6.17
    teleoperation
    Real-time control of motion of robot (3.1) from a remote site by a human
    EXAMPLE:Robotic operations of bomb disposal, space station assembly, underwater inspection and surgery.
    6.18
    User interface
    Means for information and action exchanges between human and robot (3.1) during human–robot interaction (3.15)
    EXAMPLE:Microphone, speaker, graphic user interface, joysticks, haptic devices.
    6.19
    Robot language
    Programming language used for describing the task program (6.1)
    6.20
    Simultaneous motion
    Motion of two or more robots (3.1) at the same time under the control of a single control station and which can be coordinated or synchronized with common mathematical correlation
    Note 1 to entry: An example of a single control station is a teach pendant (6.16).
    Note 2 to entry: Coordination can be done as leader-follower.
    6.21
    Limiting device
    Means that reduces the range of motion of a robot (3.1) to a subset of the maximum space (5.13) by stopping, or causing to stop, all robot motion
    6.22
    Program verification
    Execution of a task program (6.1) for the purpose of confirming the robot path (5.5.4) and process performance
    Note 1 to entry: Program verification can include the total path (5.5.4) traced by the tool centre point (5.18) during the execution of a task program or a segment of the path (5.5.4). The instructions can be executed in a single instruction or continuous instruction sequence. Program verification is used in new applications and in fine-tuning or editing of existing ones.
    6.23
    Safeguarding
    Protective measure using safeguards to protect persons from the hazards which cannot reasonably be eliminated or risks which cannot be sufficiently reduced by inherently safe design measures
    6.24
    Protective stop
    Type of interruption of operation that allows a cessation of motion for safeguarding (6.23) purposes and which retains the program logic to facilitate a restart
    6.25
    Safety-rated
    Characterized by having a prescribed safety function with a specified safety-related performance
    EXAMPLE:Safety-rated reduced speed; safety-rated monitored speed; safety-rated output.
    6.26
    Single point of control
    Ability to operate the robot (3.1) such that initiation of robot motion is only possible from one source of control and cannot be overridden from another initiation source
    6.27
    Reduced speed
    Safety function that limits the speed to be no greater than 250 mm/s
    Note 1 to entry: This safety function can also apply to the robot system (3.9), robot application, robot cell and other machinery.
    7 Terms related to performance
    7.1
    Normal operating conditions
    Range of environmental conditions and other parameters within which the robot (3.1) is expected to perform as specified by the manufacturer
    Note 1 to entry: Environmental conditions include temperature and humidity.
    Note 2 to entry: Other parameters include electrical supply instability and electromagnetic fields.
    7.2
    Load
    Force, torque or both at the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) which can be exerted along the various directions of motion under specified conditions of velocity and acceleration
    Note 1 to entry: The load is a function of mass, moment of inertia, and static and dynamic forces supported by the robot (3.1).
    7.2.1
    Rated load
    Maximum load (7.2) that can be applied to the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) in normal operating conditions (7.1) without degradation of any performance specification
    Note 1 to entry: The rated load includes the inertial effects of the end-effector (4.12), accessories and workpiece, where applicable.
    7.2.2
    Limiting load
    Maximum load (7.2) stated by the manufacturer that can be applied to the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) without any damage or failure to the robot (3.1) mechanism under restricted operating conditions
    7.2.3
    Additional load
    Additional mass
    Load (7.2) that can be carried by the robot (3.1), in addition to the rated load (7.2.1), yet is not applied at the mechanical interface (4.11) but somewhere else on the manipulator (4.14), generally on the arm (4.2)
    7.2.4
    Maximum force
    Maximum thrust
    Force (thrust), excluding any inertial effect, that can be continuously applied to the mechanical interface (4.11) or mobile platform (4.16) without causing any permanent damage to the robot (3.1) mechanism
    7.3
    Individual joint velocity
    Individual axis velocity
    Velocity of a specified point resulting from the movement of one individual joint (4.8)
    7.4
    Path velocity
    Change of position per unit time along the path (5.5.4)
    7.5
    Pose accuracy
    Unidirectional pose accuracy
    Difference between a command pose (5.5.1) and the mean of the attained poses (5.5.2) when visiting the command pose from the same direction
    7.6
    Pose repeatability
    Unidirectional pose repeatability
    Closeness of agreement among the attained poses (5.5.2) for the same command pose (5.5.1) repeated from the same direction
    7.7
    Multidirectional pose accuracy variation
    Maximum distance between the mean attained poses (5.5.2) achieved when visiting the same command pose (5.5.1) multiple times from three perpendicular directions
    7.8
    Distance accuracy
    Difference between a command distance and the mean of the attained distances
    7.9
    Resolution
    Smallest increment of movement that can be attained by each axis (5.3) or joint (4.8) of the robot (3.1)
    8 Terms related to sensing and navigation
    8.1
    Environment map
    Environment model
    Map or model that describes the environment with its distinguishable features
    EXAMPLE:Grid map, geometrical map, topological map, semantic map.
    8.2
    Localization
    Recognizing pose (5.5) of mobile robot (4.15), or identifying it on the environment map (8.1)
    8.3
    Landmark
    Artificial or natural object identifiable on the environment map (8.1) used for localization (8.2) of the mobile robot (4.15)
    8.4
    Obstacle
    Static or moving object or feature (on ground, wall or ceiling) that obstructs the intended movement
    Note 1 to entry: Ground obstacles include steps, holes and uneven terrain.
    8.5
    Mapping
    Map building
    Map generation
    Constructing the environment map (8.1) to describe the environment with its geometrical and detectable features, landmarks (8.3) and obstacles (8.4)
    8.6
    Navigation
    Process which includes path planning, localization (8.2), mapping (8.5) and providing the direction of travel
    Note 1 to entry: Navigation (8.6) can include path (5.5.4) planning for pose-to-pose travel and complete area coverage.
    8.7
    Travel surface
    Terrain on which the mobile robot (4.15) travels
    8.8
    Dead reckoning
    Method of obtaining the pose (5.5) of a mobile robot (4.15) using only internal measurements from a known initial pose
    8.9
    Task planning
    Process of solving the task to be carried out by generating a task procedure which includes subtasks and motions
    Note 1 to entry: Task planning can include autonomous and user-generated task planning.
    8.10
    Proprioceptive sensor
    Internal state sensor
    Robot sensor intended to measure the internal state(s) of a robot (3.1)
    EXAMPLE:Encoder; potentiometer; tachometer generator; inertial sensor such as accelerometer and gyroscope.
    8.11
    exteroceptive sensor
    External state sensor
    Robot sensor intended to measure the states of a robot’s environment or interaction of the robot (3.1) with its environment
    EXAMPLE:GPS; vision sensor; distance sensor; force sensor; tactile sensor; acoustic sensor.
    9 Terms related to module and modularity
    9.1
    Component
    Part of something that is discrete and identifiable with respect to combining with other parts to produce something larger
    Note 1 to entry: Component can be either software or hardware. A component that is mainly software or hardware can be referred to as software or a hardware component, respectively.
    Note 2 to entry: Component does not need to have any special properties regarding modularity (9.2).
    Note 3 to entry: A module (9.3) is a component, whereas a component does not need to be a module.
    9.2
    Modularity
    Set of characteristics which allow systems to be separated into discrete modules (9.3) and recombined
    9.3
    Module
    Component (9.1) or assembly of components with defined interfaces accompanied with property profiles to facilitate system design, integration, interoperability and reuse
    Note 1 to entry: A module may have both hardware and software aspects. It may consist of other components (hardware and software) or other modules (hardware and software).
    Note 2 to entry: This neither requires nor prevents the use of open source software to implement parts or all of the open module’s functionalities.
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