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ISO 6336-1:2019(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 1: Basic principles, introduction, and general influence factorsISO 6336-1:2019 presents the basic principles of, an introduction to, and the general influence factors for the calculation of the load capacity of spur and helical gears. Together with the other documents in the ISO 6336 series, ISO 6336-1:2019 provides a method by which different gear designs can be compared. It is not intended to assure the performance of assembled drive gear systems. It is not intended for use by the general engineering public. Instead, it is intended for use by the experienced gear designer who is capable of selecting reasonable values for the factors in these formulae based on the knowledge of similar designs and the awareness of the effects of the items discussed.
The ISO 6336 series includes procedures based on testing and theoretical studies as referenced by each method. The methods are validated for:
— normal working pressure angle from 15° to 25°;
— reference helix angle up to 30°;
— transverse contact ratio from 1,0 to 2,5.
The procedures in the ISO 6336 series provide rating formulae for the calculation of load capacity with regard to different failure modes such as pitting, tooth root breakage, tooth flank fracture, scuffing and micro pitting. At pitch line velocities below 1 m/s the gear load capacity is often limited by abrasive wear
ISO 6336-2:2019(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 2: Calculation of surface durability (pitting)
ISO 6336-2:2019 specifies the fundamental formulae for use in the determination of the surface load capacity of cylindrical gears with involute external or internal teeth. It includes formulae for all influences on surface durability for which quantitative assessments can be made. It applies primarily to oil‑lubricated transmissions, but can also be used to obtain approximate values for (slow‑running) grease‑lubricated transmissions, as long as sufficient lubricant is present in the mesh at all times.
The given formulae are valid for cylindrical gears with tooth profiles in accordance with the basic rack standardized in ISO 53. They can also be used for teeth conjugate to other basic racks where the actual transverse contact ratio is less than εαn = 2,5. The results are in good agreement with other methods
These formulae can not be directly applied for the assessment of types of gear tooth surface damage such as plastic yielding, scratching, scuffing and so on
The load capacity determined by way of the permissible contact stress is called the “surface load capacity” or “surface durability”.
ISO 6336-3:2019(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 3: Calculation of tooth bending strength
ISO 6336-3:2019 specifies the fundamental formulae for use in tooth bending stress calculations for involute external or internal spur and helical gears with a rim thickness sR > 0,5 ht for external gears and sR > 1,75 mn for internal gears. In service, internal gears can experience failure modes other than tooth bending fatigue, i.e. fractures starting at the root diameter and progressing radially outward. ISO 6336-3:2019 does not provide adequate safety against failure modes other than tooth bending fatigue. All load influences on the tooth root stress are included in so far as they are the result of loads transmitted by the gears and in so far as they can be evaluated quantitatively.
ISO 6336-3:2019 includes procedures based on testing and theoretical studies such as those of Hirt, Strasser and Brossmann. The results are in good agreement with other methods. The given formulae are valid for spur and helical gears with tooth profiles in accordance with the basic rack standardized in ISO 53. They can also be used for teeth conjugate to other basic racks if the virtual contact ratio εαn is less than 2,5.
ISO/TS 6336-4:2019(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 4: Calculation of tooth flank fracture load capacity
ISO/TS 6336-4:2019 describes a procedure for the calculation of the tooth flank fracture load capacity of cylindrical spur and helical gears with external teeth.
The formulae specified in ISO/TS 6336-4:2019 are applicable for driving as well as for driven cylindrical gears while the tooth profiles are in accordance with the basic rack specified in ISO 53. They can also be used for teeth conjugate to other racks where the actual transverse contact ratio is less than εα = 2,5. The procedure was validated for case carburized gears and the formulae of ISO/TS 6336-4:2019 are only applicable to case carburized gears with specifications inside the following limits:
— Hertzian stress: 500 N/mm2 ≤ pH ≤ 3 000 N/mm2;
— Normal radius of relative curvature: 5 mm ≤ ρred ≤ 150 mm;
— Case hardening depth at 550 HV in finished condition: 0,3 mm ≤ CHD ≤ 4,5 mm.
ISO/TS 6336-4:2019 is not applicable for the assessment of types of gear tooth damage other than tooth flank fracture.
ISO 6336-5:2016(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 5: Strength and quality of materials
ISO 6336-5:2016 describes contact and tooth-root stresses and gives numerical values for both limit stress numbers. It specifies requirements for material quality and heat treatment and comments on their influences on both limit stress numbers.
Values in accordance with ISO 6336-5:2016 are suitable for use with the calculation procedures provided in ISO 6336-2, ISO 6336-3 and ISO 6336-6 and in the application standards for industrial, high-speed and marine gears. They are applicable to the calculation procedures given in ISO 10300 for rating the load capacity of bevel gears. ISO 6336-5:2016 is applicable to all gearing, basic rack profiles, profile dimensions, design, etc., covered by those standards. The results are in good agreement with other methods for the range indicated in the scope of ISO 6336-1 and ISO 10300-1.
ISO 6336-6:2019(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 6: Calculation of service life under variable load
ISO 6336-6:2019 specifies the information and standardized conditions necessary for the calculation of the service life (or safety factors for a required life) of gears subject to variable loading for only pitting and tooth root bending strength.
ISO/TS 6336-22:2018(EN) Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears — Part 22: Calculation of micropitting load capacity
ISO 6336-6:2019 describes a procedure for the calculation of the micropitting load capacity of cylindrical gears with external teeth. It has been developed on the basis of testing and observation of oil-lubricated gear transmissions with modules between 3 mm and 11 mm and pitch line velocities of 8 m/s to 60 m/s. However, the procedure is applicable to any gear pair where suitable reference data are available, providing the criteria specified below are satisfied.
The formulae specified in ISO 6336-6:2019 are applicable for driving as well as for driven cylindrical gears with tooth profiles in line with the basic rack specified in ISO 53. They are also applicable for teeth conjugate to other basic racks where the virtual contact ratio (εαn) is less than 2,5. The results are in good agreement with other methods for normal working pressure angles up to 25°, reference helix angles up to 25° and in cases where pitch line velocity is higher than 2 m/s.
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